Labour market inequality and exclusion as factors of feminization of poverty in ukraine.

Ebere Oluchi Nwaoduh

Анотація


Abstract

This paper examines the nature of labour market inequality and exclusion in Ukraine and how they increase women’s chances to go into poverty. Inequality and segregation based on gender exists in all spheres of the labour market and these are caused by multiple factors which sometimes interplay to the disadvantage of the female folks in Ukraine. For this paper, Interviews were conducted with some experts in the field of gender studies and labour market relations to gather expert information. Based on the interviews, it is deduced that the existent poor economic situation in the country creates hardship which affects both genders thereby making the discriminations against women unobvious. It is also gathered that the Ukrainian crisis has created steeper competition in the market with employers wanting to maximize profit by placing priority on efficiency which goes hand in glove with longer working hours and more flexible itineraries which sometimes places women at disadvantaged positions due to their maternity roles. Women’s labour are therefore priced cheaper leading to about 30% wage gap between men and  women in Ukraine. Other factors such as unequal domestic obligations, traditional patriarchal culture, unpaid domestic labour, attitude towards low wages, vertical and horizontal segregation and gendered educational career path were found as causes of gender inequality in the labour market. For the full harnessing and exploitation of the Ukrainian human resource, stereotypes and gender discriminations in the economic spheres need to be dismantled to the barest minimum.



Ключові слова


Key words: Labour market inequality, Employment, Segregation, Gender stereotype, Poverty, Feminisation of poverty, Wage gap, Glass ceiling.

Повний текст:

PDF (English)

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References

Ashley Crossma (2016). An Overview Of Qualitative Research Methods sited in http://sociology.about.com/od/Research/a/Overview-Of-Qualitative-Research-Methods.htm

Beate Littig (2013). Expert Interviews. Methodology and Practice, IHS Vienna IASR Lecture Series, sited in http://www.uta.fi/iasr/lectures/index/17.9.2013_Beate%20Littig_Tampere%20Expert-Interviews.pdf

Boundless (2016). “Social Exclusion.” Boundless Sociology. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/stratification-inequality-and-social-class-in-the-u-s-9/poverty-78/social-exclusion-465-3315/

Charles Walker (2009). New Dimensions of Social Inequality, Postdoctoral Research Project sited in http://www.ceelbas.ac.uk/research/socialinequality

Hilary Silver (1994). “Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity.” International Labour Review 133, nos. 5-6, 531-78

Interview Experts:

Dmtriyeva Maria, Gender Expert, Activist and Leader of FB group Feminism.ua in Ukraine.

Ivaschenko Olga, Department of Social Structure, Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Kutsenko Olga, Department Social Structure and Social Relations, faculty of Sociology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.

Lavrinenko Natalia, Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Martsenyuk Tamara, Department Of Sociology, National University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17721/2413-7979/8.6

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ISSN 2522-9095 (Online), ISSN 2413-7979 (Print)

https://doi.org/10.17721/2413-7979