Пояснення трансформації від державного соціалізму

D. Lane

Анотація


Автор стверджує, що формування нового пост-комуністичного соціального ладу – державного будівництва, капіталізму і поліар-
хії – не може бути пояснено з точки зору соціально-структурних змін або парадигми еліт, що широко використовується. Перший під-
хід є корисним для пояснення соціальної диференціації, що відбуваються в рамках державного соціалізму, другий – щоб зрозуміти
"спрямування" суспільств до демократії. Обґрунтовується, що у переході до капіталізму необхідно брати до уваги роль класів. Розрі-
зняються соціальний і політичний клас, який включає еліти, що формуються з різних соціальних класів. Автор пропонує виділити
три сили соціального класу, що відіграють важливу роль у падінні державного соціалізму і переході до капіталізму: це, ендогенно –
клас привласнення і адміністративний клас; екзогенно – глобальний капіталістичний клас. Цілі роботи є окреслити парадигми соціа-
льних змін, оцінити їхню придатність до трансформації державного соціалізму і відродити підхід, заснований на класі.

 


Ключові слова


державний соціалізм; капіталізм; теорії трансформації; еліта; пануючі класи; тоталітарного синдрому

Посилання


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See The Power Elite, New York: Oxford University Press, 1959, pp. 302-304.

ÑÎÖ²ÎËÎòß. 1(5)/2014 ~ 13 ~

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For example, Lipset showed that European stable democracies had higher education enrolment of 4.2 per thousand of the population, European dictatorship 3.5, Latin-American democracies and unstable dictatorships 2.0 and Latin-American stable dictatorships 1.3. S.M. Lipset, 'Some Social Requisites of Democracy, Economic Development and Political Legitimacy', APSR LIII March 1959.

S.M. Lipset, 'Some Social Requisites of Democracy, Economic Development and Political Legitimacy', APSR LIII March 1959. See his classification of stable and unstable democracies and stable and unstable dictatorships, p. 342. Political Man London: Mercury 1963

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Russia in transition is characterised as having 'capitalists without capitalism' and central Europe, 'capitalism without capitalists'. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi and Eleanor Townsley, Making Capitalism without Capitalists. London: Verso, 1998. p.5. See also Lawrence P. King, 'Postcommunist Divergence: A Comparative Analysis of the Transition to Capitalism in Poland and Russia', Studies in Comparative International Development. vol. 37, no 3 Fall, 2002.

Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi and Eleanor Townsley, Making Capitalism without Capitalists. London: Verso, 1998. p. 18. Italics added.

In the late Soviet period (especially in Eastern Europe) enterprises were allowed to keep a small proportion of earnings which were overfulfilled the plan. The point is that they were not profit maximising like capitalist companies.

Such exploitation is not illegitimate: it is "socially necessary because it improves welfare". Differentials of earnings (or levels of consumption) provide incentives and reward for the use of certain skills: the elimination of such inequality would lead to "retardation" in development. Roemer (1982) pp. 148, 240-2.

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The World Economic Forum, might be considered the political elite of this political class. (In Davos in January 2000, assembled the leaders of the world's largest 1,000 globalised companies and 33 national leaders, including the President of the United States). See internet under www.weforum.org.

See John Williamson, 'What Washington Means by Policy Reform', in John Williamson (Editor), Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1990. esp. pp.8-17.

L. Sklair, 'The Transnational Capitalist Class and Global Capitalism', Political Power and Social Theory, vol. 12,(1998) p.10.


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ISSN 2522-9095 (Online), ISSN 2413-7979 (Print)

https://doi.org/10.17721/2413-7979